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Dictionnaire d'anglais «Architecture»

Vous trouverez ici un dictionnaire d'anglais architecture développé par BusinessTalkFrance pour vous assister dans vos exercices et activités d'anglais en ligne.

A-Frame
A roof shape with avery steep pitch forming a gable or "A" shape.
Abacus
The flat stone slabunderneath the entablature that forms the top of the capital of aclassical column supporting a beam.
Acanthus
AStylized leaf motif, one of the primary decorative elements of classicalarchitecture. With its origins in Greece, it was adopted by Romans andtransmitted into the general classical tradition.
Acropolis
Thesymbolic center of a Greek city-state, bringing together its mostimportant sacred and civic buildings in one urban space, as in Athenswhere the Parthenon forms the heart of the Athenianacropolis.
Adobe
Medbricks reinforced with straw. Used particularly in Latin America andsouthwestern USA, adobe produces a distinctive architectural style basedon organic forms, a smooth finish, and a minimum of windowopenings.
Aedicule
Aterm now applied to the frames surrounding a classical doorway or windowflanked by a pair of columns and topped by a pediment, but which has itsorigins in the architectural treatment of the shrines of the classicalperiod.
Agora
Thepublic open space that formed the heart of ancient Greek cities and it'sthe origin of most western conceptions of public, or civic, space ascenter of for social interaction for ceremony and democratic life on apedestrian scale.
Air Space
Aspace provided in exterior wall construction to prevent passage ofmoisture and allow the wall to dry out.
Aisle
The portion of a churchflanking the nave and seperated from it by a row of columns or piers. Ingeneral, the space between the arcade and an outer wall.
Alcazar
Abuilding type that is a legacy of the Moorish occupation of Spain, afortified palace found mainly in south of the country, particularlySeville and Granda.
Align
The faces of objectsthat are in line with each other, or when their center-lines lie on thesame axis.
Alterpiece
A panel, painted orsculptured, situated above and behind an altar.
Aluminum Siding
Lightweight materialthat is often painted rather than left in its naturalcolor.
Ambulatory
A covered walkway,outdoors (as in a cloister) or indoors: especailly the passwage around theapse and the choir (quire) of a church.
Amphitheater
Thecircular structure characterized by rising tiers of stone seats containedwithin an arched stone outer wall that was used by Romans for circusperformances and gladiatorial contest.
Anchor Bolt
Abolt or threaded rod used to secure the sill to the foundationwall.
Angle Iron
Providessupporting lintels for openings in masonry wallconstruction.
Apron
Thehorizontal member directly beneath the stool or inside sill of awindow.
Apse
Asemicircular and usually vaulted projection from a rectangular structure.Origins of the word are classical, but it is most commonly used todescribe an element of a Gothic church. A recess, usually singular andsemi-circular, at the east end of a Christian church.
Arcade
Aseries of arches supported by piers or columns.
Arcading
Anuninterruped series of arcades.
Arch
Acurved structure used as a support over an open space, as in a doorway. ASemicircular opening in a wall, or a freestanding structure dependent forits structural stability on the horizontal load threatening to push itapart. Usually made from cut stone blocks forming interlockingwedges..
Architrave
Originallya simple, flat, structural lintel spanning an opening in a wall, it is thelowest part of the classical entablature. Subsequently a term used todescribe any molded door or window frame.
Archivolt
Onee of a series ofconcentric moldings on a Romanesque or a Gothic arch.
Area wall
Theretaining wall surrounding a basement window which is below groundlevel.
Areaway
Theexcavated area between the Area wall and the basementwindow.
Art deco
Apopular design of the 1920s and "30s characterized by bold outlines,geometric and zigzag forms.
Art Nouveau
A movement that embracedarchitecture, design, and visual arts throughout Europe. It wasfashionable between 1890 and 1910, and particularly strong in France,Belgium, Germany, and Austria. In Britain, Charles Rennie Mackintosh wasan important exponent: in Spain, Antonio Gaudi was the leading figure. Itattempted to find what was sometimes called a modern style, using natural,organic forms and decorative motifs rather than historically derivedelements. Marked by ornate use of undulation, such as waves, flames,floweer stalks and flowing hair.
Arts and Craft
Galvanizedby William Morris's disgust at what he perceived as the dehumanizingtendencies of mass production and the factory system, a group osarchitects and designers attempted to revive the traditions of simplehandicraft techniques in 19th century Britain. In architecture they lookedat the unselfconscious vernacular tradition of barns, mills, and cottagesas an inspiration and at the aesthetics of the medieval period. Known asthe Arts and Crafts movement, this design tendency spread across much ofEurope to America and Australia.
Asbestos
Afibrous, incombustible material once used in building construction. Nolonger allowed due to health risk.
Asbestos Shingles
Ashingling material made up of a nonconducting, fireproof mineral used inroofing and siding. No longer allowed due to healthrisk.
Ash dump
Asmall opening located in the hearth of a fireplace having a cast ironcover, used to dump the ashes down into a cavity below the firebox.
Ashlar
Thepractice of laying stone in smooth cut - or dressed - blocks in regularcourses, seperated by only the thinnest of joints. Originated by theancient Egyptians and adopted as an important element of classicalarchitecture.
Ashlar Masonry
Masonryconstruction using a square stone.
Asphalt Shingle
Aroofing material made of a brown or black tar like substance mixed withsand or gravel.
Atrium
Inthe Roman period this was the inner courtyard of a house, left open to thesky, and generally built by the affluent urbam classes. In the 20thcentury the word has been adopted to describe dramatic enclosedglass-roofed indoor spaces associated with high-rise hotels and officebuildings that are treated as substitutes for the publicrealm.
Aumbry
A recess to hold sacredvessels, often found in castle chapels.
Awning (Window Types)
Top hinged
Awning Window
Awindow hinged along the top edge.
Axis (pl. axes)
The centerline ofopenings or objects that align in a row along an imaginary line. A primaryelement in architectural composition, around which it is possible tocreate a sense of symmetry both in plan and in the elevation of abuilding.
Axonometric
Adrawing technique devised to represent three dimensional objects on flatpaper. Verticals are drawn to scale, but diagonal dimensions aredistorted.
Bailey
Castle courtyard andsurrounding buildings.
Balcony
A platform projectingfrom an upper story and enclosed by a railing.
Balloon Framing
Acommon type of house framing using a box sill and ribband (if a secondfloor exist).
Baluster
Any of the small poststhat make up a railing as in a staircase; may be plain, turned, orpierced.
Balustrade
The combination ofrailing held up by balusters.
Barbican
Outwork defending theentrance to castle
Barge Board
Theexterior board spanning the distance from the roof ridge to the cornicereturn.
Baroque
Anarchitecture of flamboyance and swaggering excess that characterized the17th century. Taking as a starting point the elements of classicism,Baroque architects gave their buildings an unprecedented elaboration ,creating particularly dramatic spatially complex interiors heighten byornamentation and by the use of bold lighting effects.
Barrel Roof
Like a covered wagon, orinverted ship; barrel vault is a plian vault of uniformcross-section.
Barrel Tiles
Roundedclay roof tiles most often used on Spanish-style houses. Usually red, butavailable in many colors.
Bartizan
Overhanging battlementedcorner turret, corbelled out; common is Scotland (andFrance).
Base Molding
Thedecorative wooden strip along the top edge of thebaseboard.
Base Shoe
Thewooden strip (usually quarter round) along the bottom face of thebaseboard at the floor level.
Baseboard
Finishtrim where the floor and walls meet.
Basilica
The public hall thatformed a gathering point in every Roman city, usually with a rectangularplan ending in as apse and divided by a double file of columns. It was theinspiration for the early Christian churches.
Bastion
A solid masonryprojection.
Batt
Aprecut section of insulation designed to fit betweenstuds.
Batten Board
Asmall strip of wood used, for example, to cover the joints betweenvertical siding.
Batter
An inclined face ofwall; hence battered.
Batter Boards
Boardserected at the corners of a proposed building to specifically locate andshow corners and show foundation wall height.
Battlements
A Parapet withindentations or embrasures, with raised portions (merlons) between; alsocalled crenellations.
Bauhaus
Thearchitecture, design, craft, and fine art school established by WalterGropius in Weimar in 1919, transferred to Dessau in 1925, and finallymoved to BERLIN IN 1932. It closed in 1933 under increasing politicalinterference. Its influence was worldwide, providing the most coherentstatement of architectural modernism, primary through functionalistprinciples.
Bay
Buildingsare often divided into repetitive elements, or bays, defined by the spacebetween two horizontal beams, or pairs of verticalcolumns.
Bay (Window Types)
Extends beyond the exterior face of the wall
Bay Window
A setof two or more windows that protrude out from the wall. The window ismoved away from the wall to provide more light and widerviews.
Bead Molding
Asmall, cylindrical molding enriched with ornaments resembling a string ofbeads.
Beam
AHorizontal load-bearing element that forms a principal part of astructure, usually using timber, steel, or concrete.
Bearing Partition
Aninterior wall supporting weight from above.
Bed Board
Athin board (usually thin plywood) nailed to the underside of the return sand spanning the distance from the face board to the frieze. Now oftenreferred to as the soffit.
Bell-cast Eaves
Aroof which curves, sloping more gently toward thebottom.
Belt-course
Ahorizontal band similar to but thicker than a string course, markingsubdivisions of a building.
Berm
A level area sepereatingditch from bank.
Beveled
Astone cut at angles for a more decorative display.
Beveled Wood Ridge
Awood strip that covers the ridge pole; commonly found on wood-shakeroofs.
Bivalate
A hillfort defended bytwo concentric ditches.
Black Asphaltum
Abituminous substance applied to the outside of foundation walls beneaththe ground level to waterproof these walls.
Blind Stop
Astrip of material fastened to the inside perimeter of a window frame usedto hold a sash in place.
Board and Batten
Verticalsiding where wood strips (battens) hide the seams where other boards arejoined.
Board Feet
Aunit of measurement based on volume. 144 cubic inches of wood equals oneboard foot.
Bond
A term adopted todescribe the various patterns used to lay bricks in order to give themmaximum strength. It is an approach that has its origins in the periodbefore the invention of high-strength cement mortars, which made bondingof this kind unnecessary; but the patterns survive, representing acultural tradition now, rather than a functional necessity. English bond,for example, has been in use for 400 years, and is based on a mix ofbricks laid end on, and side on, in such a way that the cross joints areregularly spaced. Other patterns include Flemish bond, heading,stretching, and American. Refers to the pattern formed by mortar jointsbetween bricks, blocks or stones.
Boss
Acarved stone positioned at the apex of a ribbed vault.
Bottom Rail
Thelower rail of the bottom sash of a double-hung window.
Bow (Window Types)
Projected window with a curved surface often in the glass itself.
Box Sill
Atype of sill employing a continuous header with the appearance beingresponsible for the name.
Bracket
Asmall supporting piece of wood or stone, often formed of scrolls or otherdecorative shapes, designed to bear a projected weight, such asa awindow.
Bratice
A timber towere, orprojecting wooden gallery.
Breeze Way
Aroofed area usually found between the garage and house proper designed tpprovide shelter and outdoor summertime comfort.
Brick Sill
Acommon type of exterior window sill in brick walls with the bricksprotruding past the wall line to allow water to fall directly to theground.
Brick Veneer
Atype of wall constructed with facing brick covering a backing wall offrame or masonry.
Bricks
One of the oldestbuilding materials, brick is based on a mix of clay with silt and sandpressed in molds and then burned in a kiln, which gives the characteristicslightly glazed finish. Standard brick sizes vary from country to countryand over the years. In mainland Europe, for example, bricks are often moreslender than those commonly used in the USA and Britain.
Bridging Cross
Woodor metal strips nailed diagonally between floor joist tp prevent lateralmovement and dissipate weight.
Bridging Solid
Woodenblocks used to separate floor joists beneath partitionwalls.
Brief
Theformal written instructions prepared by a client for an architect, settingout the necessary requirements for a building in functional terms. Theyusually include the required accommodation, size of rooms, andrelationship of one space to another.
Brutalism
Ashort-lived architectural movement of the 1960s that set itself inopposition to the picturesque Scandinavian-influenced mainstream of theperiod, and instead advocated the brutally frank expression of the natureof modern materials, characterized by unadorned concrete and the bluntdetailing of joints and openings.
Building Code
A setof laws drafted by the governing body of a borough, town or city tocontrol building construction "to promote the public health, safety andgeneral welfare" of the people in that locality.
Building Paper
Ablack building paper used to cover roof boards and sheathing to helpcontrol moisture and wind infiltration.
Buttress
Astructure built against a wall to support or reinforce it. Usually anexterior masonry structure that opposes the lateral thrust of an arch or avault and adds extra support.
Campanile
Belltower, often set some distance away from its church.
Canopy
A projection or hoodover a door, window, niche, etc.
Cantilever
Aprojecting elements, such as a beam or porch, supported at a single pointor along a single line by a wall or column, stabilized by scounterbalancing downward force around the point offulcrum.
Capital
The elaboration at thetop of a column, pillar, pier or pilaster.
Carport
A roofed area attachedto the house designed to protect the car.
Caryatid
Thehuman figure used as a sculptural column as part of a classicalcomposition, often flanking a doorway, or as a decorative detail within aninterior around a fireplace.
Casement (Window Types)
SidehingedAwningTop hingedHopper
Casement Window
Awindow that opens by swinging inward or outward much like a door. Casementwindows are usually vertical in shape but are often grouped inbands.
Casing
Thetrim bordering the inside or outside of a window or door, commonlyreferred to as "inside" or "outside" casing.
Castellated
Decoratedwith battlements (a parapet with alternating indentations and raisedportions); also called crenellation. Building with battlements are usuallybrick or stone.
Caulking
Aputty-like substance used to seal joints against theweather.
Cedar Shingle
Aroofing material made of durable pinewood..
Cement Blocks
Massproduced building blocks made from pouring concrete into amold..
Cement Plaster
Amixture of sand and cement that is applied to the exterior foundation wallbeneath ground level to aid in watering proofing.
Ceramic Tile
Anyof a wide range of sturdy floor and wall tiles made from fired clay andset with grout. May be glazed or unglazed. Colors and finishes vary. Maybe used in doors or out.
Cesspool
Acesspool is a welled, underground cavity designed to receive the dischargefrom waste and soil pipes. Here, liquids are passed off while solidaremain to undergo bacterial decomposition.
Chair-rail molding
Awooden molding placed along the loweer part of the wall to prevent chairs,when pused back, from damaging the wall. Also used asdecoration.
Chamfer
Abeveled edge.
Chancel
Theeasternmost part of a church, in which the alter ishoused.
Chatri
Adomed pavilion supported by columns at each corner, which is acharacteristic element of Mogul architecture in India.
Chevet
The eastern end of aGothic church, including choir (quire), ambulatory, and radiatingchapels.
Chevron
Adecorative V-shaped line.; Zig-zag moulding (twelfthcentury).
Chimney
A passage or structureextending above the roof, through which smoke escapes.
Chiseled
A stone shaped by asharp-edged hand tool.
Choir (also quire)
The space reserved forthe clergy in the church, usually east of the transept but, in someinstances, extending into the nave.
Cinquecento
Sixteenthcentury.
Circulation
Architectureis not experienced statically. Circulation routes, the means by whichaccess is provided through and around a building, are very often keyelements in creating an understanding of architecture as users move fromone part of a building to another through a carefully considered sequenceof spaces. That part of a room or building required for movement of peoplefrom place to place.
Cladding
Thelightweight outer skin of a building that does not carry any weight orsupport the building, but does keep wind and rain out. A term used todescribe the siding or materials covering the exterior of abuilding.
Clapboard
Taperedhorizontal boards used as siding, thickest on their bottom edge; eachoverlaps the one below. Also know as weatherboard orsiding.
Classical
Refers tothe architecture and design ideas of ancient Rome andGreece.
Classicism
Thearchitectural vocabulary that has shaped Western architecture ever sinceancient Greece. Characterized by a set of compositional rules andarchitectural elements, in particular, columns and orders. It is alanguage that has continually reinvented itself, providing scope forsuccessive generations to explore the fundamentals ofdesign.
Clean-Out
Anopening in the fireplace foundation for disposal of ashes from the ashdump, or a fitting attached to waste and soil pipes to allow the system tobe cleaned out.
Clerestory
Thefenestrated part of a building that rises above the roofs of the otherparts.; Upper elements of a Romanesque or Gothic church, bringing lightinto the center of the building from side windows pierced throughstone.
Clerestory window
Awindow (usually narrow) placed in the upper walls of a room, usually at anangle, to provide extra light.
Cloister
A court, usually withcovered walks or ambulatorie along its sides.
Cob
Unburnt clay mixed withstraw.
Collar Beam
Horizontalmembers spanning roof rafters to supplement roof strength and/or formceiling joist in half-story construction.
Colonnade
A row of columns forming an element of anarchitectural composition, carrying either a flat-topped entablature or arow of arches.
Column
Aslender, upright structure, usually a supporting member in a building.Freestanding or self-supporting structural element carrying forces mainlyin compression; either stone, steel, or brick, or more recently,concrete.
Combination (Window Types)
The integration of two or more of the above into one unit.
Common Brick
Abrick used where strength in construction is required rather than apleasing appearance.
Competition
Ameans for selecting an architect for a significant commission: Architectsare invited to take part in a competition, which can be either open to allcomers or by invitation only. Open competition is reguarded as animportant way of discovering innovative new talent.
Compound pier
A pier composed of agroup or cluster of members, especially characteristic of Gothicarchitecture.
Concrete
A mixture of sand,cement and aggregate (stone or gravel) that may be reinforced with ferrousmetals.
Concrete Blocks
Masonryblocks commonly used for foundation and backing walls.
Conical
A furnace cap,resembling or shaped like a cone.
Conservation
Thye20th century has seen the constructin of more new architecture than thetotal produced by all preceding centuries put together. But it has alsoseen the principle of preserving not just the most significant individualbuildungs, but substantial groups of buildings, come to be universallyestablished. Conservation, the art of the careful restoration and recylingof run-down and redundant buildings, has become an increasinglysophisticated practice.
Conservation
The 20th Century hasseen the construction of more new architecture than the total produced byall proceeding centuries put together. But it has also seen the principleof preservation not just the most significant individual buildings, cometo be universally established. Conservation, the art of the carefulrestoration and recycling of run-down and redundant buildings, has becomean increasingly sophisticated practice
Constructivism
An avant-grade movementof the early 20th century that orginated in revolutionary Russia with workby the sculptor Naum Gabo. It had a vision of a new sense of space, animaginative understanding of geometry, and an enthusiasm for modernmaterials. Architectural adherents included the brothers Alexander andVladimir Vesnin, and Vladimir Tatlin, whose revolutionary but unbuilttower commemorating the Communist International remains an icon of theperiod.
Contractor
The responsibility foractually building an architect's design rests with the contractor, whocommits to a particular price for the work, usually in competition,employs the workforce, and contracts out such specialist work as may benecessary.
Coping
Aflat cover of stone or brick that protects the top of awall.
Corbel
A projecting wall memberused as a support for some elements of the superstructure. Also, coursesof stone or brick in which each course projects beyond the one beneath it.Two such structures, meeting at the topmost course, creates anarch.
Corbeling
Stoneor wood projecting from a wall or chimney for support ordecoration.
Corinthian
Thetype of Greek column characterized by simulated acanthusleaves.
Corinthian column
Inclassical architecture, a column decorated at the top with a mixed bag ofcurlicues, scrolls and other lavish ormanentation.
Corner Post
Three2x4's nailed together and erected at all exterior corners of a houseproviding adequate nailing space for plaster lath.
Cornice
Decorative projectionalong top of wall.
Cornice
The uppermost section ofmoldings along the top of a wall; any molded projection of similarform.
Cornice Return
A short continuation ofthe face board at the gable end of a house.
Course
Acontinuous row of building materials, such as shingle brick orstone.
Crawl Space
Theopen space beneath the first floor in a basement lesshouse.
Cresting
Thetop line or surface of a structure.
Crown molding
Amolding where the wall and ceiling meet; uppermost molding along furnitureor cabinetry.
Cupola
Asmall, dome-like structure, on top of a building to provide ventilationand decoration.
Cut stone
Largestones cut individually, used for a foundation or wall of ahouse.
Dado
The zone between a chairrail or lower part of a sill and the baseboard.
Damper
Anadjustable metal plate controlling convection currents in afireplace.
Dead Load
The weight of things andmaterials that are always present at the same place in abuilding.
Deadening Felt
Athin sheet of felt between the sub-floor and the finishedfloor.
Dental
Amolding motif that projects from the edge of a roof line orcornice.
Door Styles
Doorsare made for interior or exterior use and are either flush or paneled.They may either be solid of honeycombed construction.
Doric
Thesimplest of the three classical orders of Greekarchitecture.
Dormer
Thesetting for a vertical window in the roof. Called a gable dormer if it hasits own gable or shed dormer if a flat roof. Most often found in upstairsbedrooms.
Double Hung (Window Types)
Two sash, vertical sliding
Double-hung Window
Awindow which operates by means of two sashes that slide vertically pasteach other.
Down spout
Ametal or plastic tubing connected to the gutter forrunoff.
Drain Title
Titlepipe laid along the outside of footings to carry off excess water. Plasticperforated pipe often used for same purpose.
Drip Cap
Aprojection found, along the top edge of exterior windows and doors toallow water to fall directly to the ground.
Duct
Asheet metal enclosure carrying warm or cool air from a forced air heatingor cooling plant.
Dutch Door
Adoor divided horizontally in half; the halves may be opened together orindividually.
Eave
The projecting loweredge of a roof.
Elevation
Anorthographic view of some vertical feature of a house. (Front, rear, side,interior elevation)
Entablature
Thearea above an entryway in which the transom iscontained.
Excavate
To dig out a volume ofearth for a basement, footings or foundation.
Expansion Tank
Atank located near the heating plant of a hot water system used to helpbalance the pressure.
Exterior Wall
Anoutside wall.
Eyebrow Window
Asmall, horizontally rectangular window, often located on the uppermoststory, aligned with windows below.
Facade
Oneof the exterior faces (walls) of a building.
Face Board
Theboard nailed to the exposed ends of roof rafters.
Face Brick
Afinished, non-defective brick yielding good appearance and constructionquality.
Fanlight
A semi-circular orsemi-elliptical window with a horizontal sill often above adoor.
Fascia
A horizontal band orboard, often used to conceal the ends of rafters; the front of an object.Same as a face board.
Fenestration
Thestylistic arrangement of windows in a building.
Fieldstone
Astone used in its natural shape.
Finial
A knob-likeornament.
Finish Floor
Afinished walking surface.
Fire Brick
Afire resistant brick used to line a fireplace.
Fire Cut
Anangled cut on joist ends found in solid masonry wall construction designedto prevent wall collapse in case of fire.
Fire Stop
Aboard placed within a frame wall to prevent a flue-like action in case ofa fire.
Fish scale Shingles
Ashingle having straight sides and rounded bottoms.
Flashing
Sheetmetal fitted around chimneys, valleys, drip caps, etc. to seal outmoisture.
Flat Roof
Apitch less roof type most favorable in dry climates.
Fleche
A very small woodenspire.
Floor Plan
Anorthographic section of an intended floor layout with the cutting planepassing through windows and doors.
Flue
The hollow passage thatcarries smoke and heat to the outside from the fireplace orfurnace.
Flue Liner
Thefire resistant material that lines the flue.
Flying Buttress
Adetached pier supporting the weight of a wall.
Footer
Theconcrete slab that supports all foundation walls.
Footing
Atype of stone edging on a masonry wall.
Foundation
Thebase of a house providing stability and rigidness.
Foundation Wall
Themasonry wall that rest on the footer.
Four-way Switch
Electrical switchesconnected between three-way switches in order to control a light fromthree or more stations.
Foyer
An area just inside themain exterior door for the removal of wraps, overshoes,etc.
Frame
Ofwood construction.
Framing Plan
A topview plan of the roof of floor level showing the layout of rafters, ridge,joist headers, trimmers, etc.
French Drain
Abasement floor drain designed to allow water to seep into the groundrather than be carried away through pipes.
Frieze
Aband with designs or carvings along a wall or above doorways andwindows.
Frost Line
The under ground levelthat frost will reach during the coldest days in a givenlocality.
Furring Strips
Woodenstrips nailed to masonry walls to provide the necessary air space betweenmasonry and wood or plaster
Gable
A triangular area of anexterior wall formed by two sloping roofs.
Gambrel
A roof where each sidehas two slopes; a steeper lower slope and a flatter upper one; a 'barnroof'. Often found in Colonial revival houses in the "Dutch"style.
Gazebo
Asmall summerhouse or pavilion with a view, or a belvedere on the roof of ahouse.
Girder
Astrong, wooden member spanning foundation walls designed to support joistends.
Girt
Supportsthe second floor joist in two-story construction.
Glass Block
Awindow type formed by a compilation of small translucent cubes ofglass.
Grounds
Woodenstrips of plaster thickness found behind inside window and door casingsand baseboards to provide adequate nailing surface.
Gutter
Ametal or plastic trough along the edge of a roof that collects water offthe eave and carries it to the down spout.
Half-timber
Aframed construction method where spaces between members are filled withmasonry.
Hanger
Aformed sheet steel device that anchor together floor framing members thatmeet at right angles.
Head
Aterm that applied to the construction that comprises the entire lintel ofa door or window.
Header
This term applies toseveral construction features; - The top horizontal support of a roughopening - The support for joist-ends on the foundation walls sill - Thesupport for joist-ends in a floor or roof opening
Hearth
Thefireplace floor.
Heat Loss
The heat that is lost(in BTU's) through ceilings, roof, floors and exterior walls of ahouse.
Heating Systems
Differentheating Methods for heating buildings: Hot Water, warm air, steam,electric, heat pump, geo-thermal, etc
Hip Rafter
Therafter at the corner of a hip roof.
Hipped roof
Aroof with slopes on all four sides. The "hips" are the lines formed whenthe slopes meet at the corners.
Home Styles
Thedifferent characteristic of a home influenced by the homes of immigrants:English, French, German, Dutch, Spanish, Italians, and others.contemporary styes is a termed "release from tradition" and severs outties with previous styles.
Hopper (Window Types)
Bottom hinged
Horizontal sliding (Window Types)
Two or more sash designed to slide over one another
House Shapes
Thegeneral top view of the house outline. (Square, Rectangle, L-shaped,U-shaped, H-shaped, etc.
I-Beam
Asteel beam often used for floor support. Cross section of beam resembles acapital I.
Infiltration
The act of wind blowinginto the house through poorly weather-stripped windows anddoors.
Inside Stop
Seeblind stop.
Insulation
Amaterial designed to control the passing of heat and / orsound.
Interior Elevation
Anorthographic view of an inside wall.
Ionic
The type of Greek columncharacterized by scroll-like decorations.
Jack Stud
Astud adding to the support of roof rafters.
Jalousie (Window Types)
Glass slats, Venetian blind principle
Jamb
Thevertical members of a window or door frame.
Jenkins-headRoof
A gabled roof with its apex truncated by a small hippedroof.
Joist
Woodframing members, usually set 16" apart on center, carefully chosen tosupport all "live" and "dead" loads.
Keystone
Thecentral, topmost stone of an arch.
Knee Wall
Awall supported by jack studs in half- storyconstruction.
Lally Column
Apost supporting a girder or I-beam.
Lath
Meshmetal, plasterboard, or thin wooden strips used as a foundation forplaster or stucco.
Lattice
Agrille created by cris-crossing or decoratively interlacing strips ofmaterial.
Leaded Window
Awindow decorated by artistic inserts of lead.
Leader
Downspout
Ledger Strip
Awooden strip nailed along the bottom face of one support to aid in thesupport of another member brought.
Light
Awindow glass.
Lintel
Ahorizontal supporting crosspiece over an opening.
Live Load
Theweight of people, things and materials that are not always present at thesame place in a building.
Louver Vent
An opening fitted with aseries of sloping slats arranged to admit light and air but shedrain.
Mansard
Aroof type with two slopes on each of the four sides, the lower slope beingsteeper than the other; capped off with a cupola, typicallyVictorian.
Masonry
Stoneworkor brickwork
Meeting Rails
Thename applied to rails of window sash that meet one another when the windowis closed.
Millwork
Finished woodwork,cabinetry, carving, etc.
Modillion
A bracket supporting theupper part of a composite or Corinthian cornice.
Modular Planning
Planninga home in multiples of four feet in order to reduce material waste and cutlabor cost.
Molding
Shaped decorativeoutlines